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مُساهمةموضوع: health   الأحد سبتمبر 16, 2012 12:02 am

All components of the environment on our planet exert eventually impact on human health and well-being of the environment, however, that exercised the greatest direct impact on people's lives, health and well-being is the immediate environment of their homes, workplaces and neighborhoods surrounding them. And contribute to all of the environmental factors and genetic disease events acquired, but there is often interaction between the two.

Although the absence of disease is usually ended in conformity with the reasonable health, as well as the absence of disease but have usually ended importance. Good health requires a healthy mind in a healthy body. Can not ignore the social and economic impacts of the corruption of mental health in any population group. Mental health is corrupt, like the organic health damaged can cause genetic factors, environmental or from the interaction between the two both. Has increased over the past two decades, evidence on the role of biochemical changes in the disease-causing substances. May be some of these biochemical anomalies inherited or environmentally innovative. There are certain organic causes of mental illness certainly due to environmental factors, as is the case with a group of psychiatric disorders caused by infectious agents such as trypanosomiasis. As exposure to heavy ****ls such as mercury, lead or vehicle artificial certain could create a susceptibility to brain tumors or conduct anomalous For example, A study on the long-term effects of exposure to small doses of lead in childhood is a link that exposure deficit in the function of the central nervous system remains an inherent Even the young people.

# Of malnutrition:

Malnutrition is the most prevalent in poor health and a major contributor to Arvaa mortality rate among children and young people in developing countries. Weigh the child at birth is the single most important factor which determines the early opportunity to survival and healthy growth and development. Since the weight at birth determine the mother's condition and health status related to nutrition, the proportion of children born light weights (less than 2500 grams) accurately reflect the state of health and social mothers and the communities in which they are born children. In communities where malnutrition is a chronic problem or Atnad periods of food or natural pressures such as recurrent droughts rarely find what pregnant women eat and not sufficiently so to be affected by the fetus. Suffer nearly 51 per cent of pregnant women in the world of nutrition anemia (low hemoglobin levels due to poor nutrition) The proportion of women in developing countries, 59 are significantly higher than in industrialized countries is 14 per Almazp. Also, about 22 million (or about 16 per cent) of all children born each year in the world and over 140 million children are Khvivi weight at birth. Generates at least 20 million of those babies in developing countries and the majority of more than 13 million in South Asia and the rest in Africa and Latin America and East Asia. The aim of the Global Strategy for health for all initiated by the General Assembly of the World Health Assembly to achieve the goal is guaranteed to be a birth weight 2500 grams for at least 90 per cent of newborn infants and to achieve adequate growth of children, according to the measure of the objectives of the appropriate weight by the year 2000.

Malnutrition from the standpoint of numerical dangerous conditions affecting the health of children, particularly in developing countries. The show surveys conducted in different regions of the world that at any moment there is an estimated 10 million children suffer from acute malnutrition and 200 million people do not have adequate nutrition. Since malnutrition makes children more vulnerable or of the disease may also worsen injury due to malnutrition. The breast is better to protect the child, either from malnutrition or disease. The last two decades have witnessed a growing awareness of the importance of breastfeeding.

However, all chemical compounds taken by the mother will appear in almost all the milk in one form or another. Were found to DDT and its derivatives and other pesticides, cadmium, lead and mercury in human milk in several countries. Several studies have revealed the concentration of DDT and the DDE in human milk in some countries, the highest of standards acceptable to daily and maximum residue limits approved by the World Health Organization / Food and Agriculture Organization. However, there was no evidence to suggest that levels of DDT Wal DDE in human milk generally has caused damage to babies. The fact is that breast milk is usually less polluted than the alternatives. Also, global rates of mortality and morbidity among children who are fed artificially in many developing countries can be attributed to improper preparation of the compounds of baby food and other food and contamination. Has helped to accept the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes by the World Health Organization to push governments to develop programs to promote the most active of breastfeeding. Yet, despite the growing popularity of breastfeeding in the industrialized countries there have been no similar increase in developing countries.

# Infectious Diseases:

Different environmental conditions not only provides regional differences in the incidence of disease, but identifies seasonal differences as well. In developing countries, spread infectious and parasitic diseases and complications of childbirth and pregnancy. And some infectious diseases transmitted more easily during the rainy season. As the temperature, humidity, soil and rainfall conditions and atmosphere are all important factors in certain contagious diseases ecological, particularly as they control the distribution and abundance of disease vectors.

And cause infectious diseases in a large proportion of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, where billions of people who still lack the basic necessities of life, adequate shelter and access to safe water supply, sanitation and waste disposal facilities. So that the deterioration of environmental conditions in which they live double spread of infectious diseases and the generation of citizens and their delivery vehicles. Overcrowding population accelerates the spread of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. The lack of sanitation and safe water supply provides fertile ground for outbreaks of communicable diseases transmitted by water, food and more people are exposed to the source of pollution increase the risk of infection and spread thereafter. In the middle of the eighties is estimated that 17 million people, including 5.1 million children under age five in developing countries who die each year of infectious and parasitic diseases, compared with about half a million in developed countries.

Although cholera infections has fallen in Asia, they had been en route to the continent of America and led to a dramatic increase in the number of cases reported to WHO, about 25000 cases in 1991. In Africa, the total number of cholera cases almost constant over the last two decades. But he was speaking from time to time and from time to time in different countries, local cholera and injuries, these injuries were mainly due to contamination of drinking water and food.

Malaria continues to be one of the most serious problems of public health and the environment in much of the developing world. This disease is endemic in 102 countries. And be more than half the world's population are threatened by the risk of injury. Since 1980, there was a general decline in the number of malaria cases in Africa and South East Asia and Western Pacific, but there was a gradual increase in the American continent. In 1988, there are 8 million cases of malaria in the world has been reported to the World Health Organization, however, he believed that the total number of cases is in the range of 100 million. The total number of cases that were reported in 1988 was 39 per cent of it in Africa and 32 per cent in South-East Asia. It is believed that 43 per cent of the world population in malaria-endemic area. And inhabited by about 445 million people in malaria-endemic areas where the state does not take specific measures to combat transmission and where malaria remains unchanged in real terms.

Schistosomiasis is still one of the major health risks in some 76 developing countries. Countries and regions where there are large numbers of cases are Brazil, Cambodia, Central African democracy and Egypt and the Philippines. In general, estimated that about 200 million people are infected with the disease and 600 million others are at risk. The creation of lakes and man-made fish ponds and irrigation schemes to increase the incidence of the disease. For example, show Dyadma after construction of a dam on the River Senegal in 1986, said: Intestinal schistosomiasis has increased significantly since early 1986 and by 1989 the rate was 71.5 per cent of the samples were selected at random.

Last decade has seen the first cases have been reported to be infected with human immunodeficiency and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). And decimating the syndrome of AIDS to people of all ages, but poses an increased risk for newborns and infants. There are 1.5 million women at least at the world-wide - about one million of them in Africa - are infected with human immunodeficiency. Children born to such women ranges likely to suffer before birth or during between 25 and 45 per cent. It is almost certain that these children die before they reach the age of five. It is estimated that between 5 and 10 million people worldwide are infected with AIDS have AIDS and about 400000 patients had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is estimated that by 1991 there would have been more than a million cases of disease, while in 1991 it may exceed the cumulative number of five million.










# Chemical pollution and health:

Humans exposed to various chemicals in their professional and community organizations. There is now a wide measure of scientific information on the effects of short-term exposure to high levels of hazardous chemicals. However, little is known of what is happening to individuals who are exposed to very low concentrations of these chemicals after 20 or 30 years. However, it can measure the impact among the numbers of the population in terms of morbidity and mortality or in terms of physiological changes. Also, genetic mutations (producing new genetic characteristics of most harmful) can also have chemical causes, and be permanent. The cancer and birth defects among the risks to health that may result from long-term exposure to toxic substances. He spoke of birth defects is 2-3 per cent of all births. Of this percentage 25 per cent return on the causes of genetic arise while 5-10 of water in the impact of four types of known causes: radiation, viruses, drugs and chemicals. Arise and the rest ranging between 65 and 70 per cent for unknown reasons. But it may come from the interaction of several genetic factors.

The impact of exposure to contaminated with a chemical on the length of exposure and the intensity and type of chemical to which the individual. Should distinguish between two main types of exposure:

First: the exposure to high levels of pollutants unusual cases such as accidental release of chemicals and occupational exposures or in the case of environmental accidents, such as anomalous water pollution accidents.

II: is the exposure to pollutants in the environment in general.

In the first exposure the effects are clear and death is the direct and premature death or increased incidences of diseases. For example, caused the accidental release of methyl Aloisosianat accident in Bhopal in Mbasharp mortality in the high incidence of the disease. The resulting exposure of workers to high concentrations of chemicals to various occupational diseases. Examples of such cases, the effects of exposure to lead poisoning and changes in the lung (lung disease caused by inhalation of dust), and pesticide poisoning and various types of cancer. The World Health Organization estimated the number of accidental acute poisoning due to exposure to pesticides at half a million in 1972 and this number has increased to one million in 1985 due to increased use of pesticides. That returns the percentage of 60-70 per cent of these cases to occupational exposure. And there are nearly 20000 deaths each year due to pesticide poisoning. In spite of the many traditional occupational diseases have decreased in developed countries as a result of the application of strict preventive measures, it is increasing in several developing countries due to lack of regulatory measures to protect workers or the lack thereof (as well as lack of awareness among workers, and lack of cooperation). There is also increasingly concerned to increase the occupational diseases in industry (including maintenance workshops), especially among children, who make up a large proportion of the workforce. And the effects of air accidents, such as the fog of London in 1952 are well ********ed; The children and the elderly, particularly those who suffer from respiratory problems or the circulatory system are the most affected.

To assess the health effects of exposure to chemical contaminants in the environment with the task is difficult because Alferdikon generally exposed to several pollutants at one time. And the total for the suffering of the person to inhale or eat contaminated material from the air or water or food, soil, or absorbed through the skin. In many cases, the impact of any material contaminated with either more or less through interaction with other pollutants. For I known that the health effects of sulfur dioxide increased the presence of any fine particles. And tobacco smoking increases the incidence of cancer from exposure to radon gas inside buildings. There have been several attempts in the last two decades to assess the health effects of the total human population is exposed using models for the distribution of environmental pollutant chemicals, transport, and fate and human exposure through different routes and toxicity of chemicals and drugs in humans. In 1984, WHO has developed a Programme / United Nations Environment Programme »human exposure assessment sites« part of »the global system of environmental monitoring« to monitor the overall human exposure to pollutants. It is expected that the findings will help to enable countries to assess the risks of combined air pollutants and food and water and take appropriate action to preserve the health of human beings.

Was to investigate the causes and effects of several pollutants, for example, that the health effects of carbon monoxide, ozone and sulfur oxides Altriosviri combinations of particulate matter and lead in the air in the surrounding environment is well ********ed. Research has proven in science epidemic in the last two decades that indoor air pollution may lead to an increased incidence of cancer due to exposure to radon and tobacco smoke in rural areas in developing countries may lead to increased respiratory diseases and cancer as a result of exposure to emissions from biomass fuels. Has become increasing nitrate in groundwater is a concern in many countries. Valentrut constitute a health hazard especially for children has been the World Health Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme and the International Labour Organization has been working in the early seventies to establish health standards for various pollutants.

There is now general agreement that about 85 per cent of all cancer cases result from environmental factors such as the broad beam of ionizing and chemicals that cause cancer in the air, food, tobacco, alcohol and drugs (chemical agents, international). And is supposed to be for the rest of the genetic basis or that have arisen from the interactions of dynamic spontaneous incidents. Although the percentage of deaths due to cancer, the highest in developed countries than in developing countries, cancer in the countries of both groups are similar in general. However, there were differences in the pathogenesis of various types of cancer. The most important cause of lung cancer is smoking tobacco, including passive smoking. Despite this fact, the use of tobacco in the world has increased by nearly 75 per cent over the past two decades also increased a marked increase in smoking among young people.






# Responses:

Related to different responses that are summarized in the preceding chapters, either directly or indirectly to improving human health and the reduction of health risks associated with the various types of pollutants. The fact that prevention is better than treatment in what has been achieved, although the original objectives of the International Decade of the water supply and sanitation have not been realized until the year 1990, the contract has provided hundreds of millions of people with safe drinking water and sanitation. This has helped significantly to improve the health conditions in areas that provided such facilities. Also that the measures taken by the air emissions and to protect the ozone layer is another example of preventive measures. However, there is still a long way to go to reduce the health risks from environmental pollution and degradation. An urgent need for more research to explain why the overall effects of human exposure to develop practical guidelines to protect human health. There's also plenty to be done to reduce the incidence of diseases epidemic in developing countries.

Been in the past two decades, control of certain infectious diseases. Has been totally eradicated smallpox. And the incidence of river blindness have been reduced sharply lower in West Africa. Has helped increase in the use of treatment for oral rehydration to reduce the mortality of children under the age of five due to diarrheal diseases. In 1985 it was processed about 18 per cent of children through oral rehydration; In 1988, the percentage of these children to 25 per cent (United Nations Children's Fund, 1991). This helped save the lives of nearly one million children each year (Hirshhorn and Greenough 1991). Through the pediatric immunization decreased the six vaccine preventable (ie poliomyelitis, and Altetalos, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis). In the seventies these diseases kill about 50 million children a year In the eighties, this amount dropped to 3 million per year, which continues to decline through the Expanded Programme on Immunization.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: health   الجمعة مارس 01, 2013 10:20 pm


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: health   الأربعاء أبريل 24, 2013 7:54 pm

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